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世界人文之路鼎新北科講座系列第122講

講座題目:

古老語言和當代障礙之間的關聯

The Connection Between Ancient Language and Contemporary Disabilities

講座時間:20181030日星期二上午1000

講座地點:外語樓315 (學術報告廳)

主講人:

Jeffrey R. Gruen 醫學博士,教授,耶魯大學醫學院兒科學、遺傳學和的醫學研究項目組

Professor, Pediatrics, Genetics, and the Investigative Medicine Program, Yale University School of Medicine

主講人簡介:

Gruen博士是耶魯大學醫學院兒科學、遺傳學和醫學研究項目教授。他也是兒科和新生醫學專家,在耶魯-紐黑文兒童醫院新生兒重癥監護病房擔任主治醫師已有30多年。Gruen博士在耶魯兒童健康研究中心以及加拿大和中國的國際合作中的工作重點在閱讀和語言的遺傳學研究,包括閱讀障礙、特異性語言損傷和語音障礙。他在國際知名的同行評議期刊上發表了80多篇論文,這些期刊包括《美國國家科學院報》(Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)、《自然神經科學》(Nature Neuroscience)、《美國人類遺傳學雜志》(American Journal of Human Genetics)和PLoS OneGruen博士發現的DCDC2基因被《科學》雜志列為2005年最重要的5個科學發現之一。

Dr. Gruen is Professor of Pediatrics, Genetics, and the Investigative Medicine Program at the Yale University School of Medicine. Dr. Gruen is also a specialist in Pediatrics and Neonatology, and has been an attending physician in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of The Children’s Hospital at Yale-New Haven for more than 30 years. The focus of Dr. Gruen’s research at the Yale Child Health Research Center, and through international collaborations in Canada and China, is on the genetics of reading and language, including dyslexia, specific language impairment, and speech sound disorder.  He has authored over 80 peer-review publications in highly regarded scientific journals including Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Nature Neuroscience, American Journal of Human Genetics, and PLoS One.  Dr. Gruen’s discovery of the DCDC2 gene was cited as the 5th most important discovery of the Year 2005, by the journal, Science

 

講座內容簡介:

全球學習障礙的發生率在10%20%之間。到目前為止所發現的最常見的學習障礙是閱讀障礙,也被稱為誦讀困難。在這次講座中,Gruen博士將展示在世界各地使用的7000種語言中,語言特征的保留是如何通過不同人群中特有的基因變異形成的,以及現代基因組中可以發現的支持性證據。他將把古代人類遷徙的時間線與語言及閱讀的發展進行對比,強調基因-環境相互作用對語言的重要性。他將討論語言進化以及閱讀技能如何依賴于基因變異,而這種基因變異塑造了口語,且可能與書面語言不一致。這些反映在當代不同語言文化下閱讀障礙的高發病率中。

The worldwide prevalence of learning disabilities is between 10% and 20%.  By far the most common is reading disability, also known as dyslexia.  In this lecture, Dr. Gruen, will show how retention of linguistic features amongst the 7,000 languages spoken around the world were likely shaped by genetic variants endemic in different populations, and the supporting evidence that can be found in contemporary genomes.  He will contrast the timelines of ancient human migration with the development of language and reading, highlighting the importance of gene-environment interactions for language. He will discuss language evolution and how reading skills depend on gene variants that shaped spoken language and might be at odds with written language, and that is reflected in the high prevalence rates of reading disability in contemporary cultures.

 

 

 

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